The technical program of the Conference consisted of technical sessions that covered all-important aspects of control, informa- tion processing/communications, and computers. In particular, there were numerous technical sessions covering all-important aspects of control, such as control theory, control applications, estima- tion, identification, adaptive systems, linear systems, stability, cybernetics, computational methods, and simulation. The program also included many sessions on information processing/communicati- ons, such as information theory, coding, signal analysis, signal processing, communication theory, satellite communications, pat- tern recognition and image processing. Moreover, there were sever- al sessions on computers, in particular on computer systems, com- puter communication networks, and automata. Finally, the technical program included numerous sessions on important applications of systems technology, such as power, energy modeling and planning, earth resources, transportation, economics and management, and physiological systems. In view of the broad scope of the Conference technical program and the extensive coverage of many important aspects of systems theory and applications by internationally known researchers, we hope that this collection of papers will be a useful supplement to the published literature and textbooks used for research and teaching. For the success of the Conference we are indebted to a great many people and institutions, primarily to the authors of the papers, without whom the conference would not have existed, and this book would not have materialized. We are particularly indebted to the great majority of them who paid some or all of their own expenses.
Computers In Building : Proceedings Of The Eighth International Conference On Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures Held At Georgia Institute Of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, U S A On June 7-8, 1999
Since the establishment of the CAAD Futures Foundation in 1985, CAAD experts from all over the world meet every two years to present and document the state of the art of research in Computer Aided Architectural Design. Together, the series provides a good record of the evolving state of research in this area over the last fourteen years. The Proceedings this year is the eighth in the series. The conference held at Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia, includes twenty-five papers presenting new and exciting results and capabilities in areas such as computer graphics, building modeling, digital sketching and drawing systems, Web-based collaboration and information exchange. An overall reading shows that computers in architecture is still a young field, with many exciting results emerging out of both greater understanding of the human processes and information processing needed to support design and also the continuously expanding capabilities of digital technology.
Liner conferences are among the oldest surviving cartels in the world. Created in the 1870s, they have existed on all the world's shipping routes. With the approval or tacit acquiescence of governments everywhere, they fix freight rates, control capacity, and share markets. The United Nations Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences (1974) granted them global recognition and prompted the EC to recommend Member States to join the Convention on the Liner Code (1979) and to grant them the most generous and extraordinary block exemption from EC antitrust rules ever (1986). The EC Commissions administration of the block exemption has clarified some of its aspects and, to a certain extent, limited its scope; but until very recently, it has not questioned the appropriateness of the exceptionally lenient treatment of liner shipping cartels in the EU. After a report by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Secretariat (2002) recommending abolition of antitrust immunity for shipping cartels in member countries, the European Commission launched a review of the block exemption (2003), which has not yet finished, and suggested that the authorization for liner conferences should either be repealed or severely limited. This book studies first the origins, the early history, and the regulation of liner conferences in the world and in the EC, focusing in particular on the regulation which granted a block exemption to liner conferences. Then, the book examines, one by one, the four conditions for a block exemption to be granted under EC law, and concludes that none of them is fulfilled by shipping cartels. Finally, it recommends that the block exemption is repealed and proposes some alternative scenarios and solutions for the adequate enforcement of antitrust law in the maritime sector. Shipping Conferences under EC Antitrust Law - the only study of Shipping Conferences - examines one of the great anomalies in world trade law.
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